What is the relationship between development and underdevelopment, environmental science homework help

For your discussions this week, I would like to think broadly about the question: What is the relationship between development and underdevelopment?

A few specific questions that may guide your thinking include:

  • In Staying Alive (Ch 1), Vandana Shiva explains in detail how development, or maldevelopment, has led to several unsustainable social and ecological outcomes, especially for people in regions of the world that are the targets of development interventions. She also addresses how Western science has a key role in supporting global social inequality and ecological degradation.
    • How does “science” support global inequality and underdevelopment?
    • What are the main inequalities that the development project contributes to?
  • In The development of underdevelopment, Gundar Frank critiques modernization theory that assume all nations can ‘naturally’ develop in a path that leads toward European mass consumption lifestyles. He asks us to look at the historical context of today’s so-called underdeveloped nations to understand how, due to previous colonial relations, their economies and development are dependent on wealthier nations’ consumption of labor and raw materials. As such, he also suggests that the wealthy (core) nations of the world need a peripheral group of poorer states in order to remain wealthy. His approach is often described as dependency theory.
    • In what ways do wealthy countries perpetuate dependency, or underdevelopment, of poorer countries through policies or other initiatives?

For Staying Alive artice- just chapter one has to be read. if you need additional time let me know, it just is due Monday 1/30 at 11 p.m. central standard time.

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